Warning: Declaration of Portfolio_Walker::start_el(&$output, $category, $depth, $args) should be compatible with Walker_Category::start_el(&$output, $category, $depth = 0, $args = Array, $id = 0) in /nfs/c09/h03/mnt/139120/domains/samanthamorden.com/html/wp-content/themes/kingsize/functions.php on line 370

Warning: Declaration of description_walker::start_el(&$output, $item, $depth, $args) should be compatible with Walker_Nav_Menu::start_el(&$output, $item, $depth = 0, $args = Array, $id = 0) in /nfs/c09/h03/mnt/139120/domains/samanthamorden.com/html/wp-content/themes/kingsize/lib/menu-walker.php on line 54
global economic uncertainty index

Uncategorized

global economic uncertainty index

The effects of global economic policy uncertainty vary across regime states, sectors, and nature of effects. Building on Baker, Bloom and Davis (2016), I construct a monthly index of Global Economic Policy Uncertainty (GEPU) from January 1997. 8. “Global economic uncertainty climbing sharply, IMF economists’ new index finds”. (November 27, 2020). Until now, however, progress to measure economic and political uncertainty has been made only for a set of mostly, advanced economies. What is behind the decoupling of global activity and trade? New, Everything you need to know about the industry development, Find studies from all around the internet. … Recent developments have inspired efforts to measure trade uncertainty. You only have access to basic statistics. FRED Economic Policy Uncertainty Index We live in uncertain times - an assertion supported by the Federal Reserve’s economic policy uncertainty index. Source: ECB calculations.Notes: The chart shows impulse response functions obtained from an SVAR model featuring our measure of global economic uncertainty, global investment, global imports, an aggregate measure of interest rates, global CPI inflation and an index of world equity prices. The IMF’s new World Uncertainty Index (WUI) captures uncertainty related to economic and political events in the near-term and long-term, and looks back 60 years. Negative effects of global economic policy uncertainty dominate positive effects. April 2019. Based on this definition, we developed measures of economic uncertainty for 16 euro area trading partners, together accounting for around 70% of world GDP (excluding the euro area). Therefore, uncertainty could continue to cloud the global outlook in the coming quarters. We find that, since 2008, economic policy uncertainty in the United States has been at a level approximately two times its long run average. Are you interested in testing our corporate solutions? The model is estimated over the period 1996Q1 to 2019Q2. Dig deeper into the ECB’s activities and discover key topics in simple words and through multimedia. Then you will be able to mark statistics as favourites and use personal statistics alerts. Directly accessible data for 170 industries from 50 countries “Real Time Economics: Trump vs. Fed, World vs. Germany”. Download PDF Abstract: This paper constructs a global economic policy uncertainty index through the principal component analysis of the economic policy uncertainty indices for twenty primary economies around the world. The index tends to spike around times of global geopolitical or financial unrest. The PCA-based economic policy uncertainty index is found to be positively related with the volatility and correlation of the global financial market, which indicates that the stock markets are more volatile and correlated when the global economic policy uncertainty is higher. Bloom, Baker and Davis constructed an index to measure policy-related economic uncertainty. While the literature goes some way towards defining the concept of uncertainty, including by setting it apart from risk and confidence[4], there is no single commonly accepted measure of uncertainty. Source: ECB calculations.Note: Standard deviations from means are computed over the period Jan 1998-August 2019. Accessed December 02, 2020. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1032028/global-policy-uncertainty-index/, Website (policyuncertainty.com). Analysing the causal relationship between fluctuations in uncertainty and output growth is not straightforward as causality can be bi-directional: higher uncertainty affects economic activity, but (adverse) shocks to output are also likely to raise uncertainty. [14] The results of this analysis suggest that uncertainty shocks matter and are significant in size. The index is constructed by text-mining country reports from the Economist Intelligence Unit. Notes: The chart shows impulse response functions obtained from an SVAR model featuring our measure of global economic uncertainty, global investment, global imports, an aggregate measure of interest rates, global CPI inflation and an index of world equity prices. Declines in economic activity were widespread. April 2019. The Global Economic Policy Uncertainty Index, devised by a trio of professors under the names Baker, Bloom & Davis, has surged to its highest level since it … The FEDS Note "Does Trade Policy Uncertainty Affect Global Economic Activity?" Learn more about how Statista can support your business. In order to distinguish exogenous shocks from uncertainty we rely on the methodology proposed by Piffer and Podstawski[13] and estimate a proxy structural vector autoregression (SVAR) in which we use variations in the price of gold as an instrument for uncertainty. Current dollars index value is used. In this box we present synthetic measures of time-varying macroeconomic uncertainty. Learn more about how we use cookies, We are always working to improve this website for our users. The ideal entry-level account for individual users. “Uncertainty” is often described as the intangible or “X factor” in economic forecasts. We extend our approach to other countries, finding elevated levels of economic policy uncertainty abroad, as well. We are always working to improve this website for our users. Global Economic Uncertainty Weighs on Housing Markets Home values across 56 countries appreciated at a modest 3.4% in the year through June. [10] Moreover, the interplay between uncertainty shocks and financial frictions can have powerful effects on economic activity. Our analysis also suggests that uncertainty has been a drag on global investment and trade growth over the past year, accounting for a third of the decline in investment and for 40% of the decline in global imports (see Chart D). An Index of Global Economic Policy Uncertainty Steven J. Davis NBER Working Paper No. Following the global financial crisis, policy debates have increasingly focused on the macroeconomic consequences of heightened uncertainty. This has important implications for global economic prospects. (November 10, 2020). Global Economic Policy Uncertainty Index Europe Though Europe budget balance index fluctuated substantially in recent months, it tended to decrease through April 2009 - March 2014 period ending at 110.98 index in March 2014. ... China led the index in … To do this, we use the anonymous data provided by cookies. Jurado et al. [9] An often-cited channel linking uncertainty to real activity is the irreversibility of investment. Since uncertainty cannot be observed directly, proxies are generally used. "Global economic policy uncertainty index from October 2018 to October 2020." Available to download in PNG, PDF, XLS format, Access to this and all other statistics on 80,000 topics from. and over 1 Mio. We develop a new method to measure economic policy uncertainty and test its dynamic relationship with output, investment, and employment. This statistic is not included in your account. However, many of the events that have spurred the rise in uncertainty are far from being resolved, and risks to global economic activity are judged to be tilted to the downside. As a Premium user you get access to background information and details about the release of this statistic. A dissipation of uncertainty may also contribute to the pickup in global activity as anticipated by the December 2019 Eurosystem macroeconomic projections. While the pace of economic growth has been subdued in many locations, this is due only in part to volatile commodity prices and Global Economic Policy Uncertainty Index for the last year as of October 2020 [Graph]. The Global Economic Policy Uncertainty index is a news-based measure of economic and policy uncertainty across 20 countries. This index … Read about the ECB’s monetary policy instruments and see the latest data on its open market operations. Please create an employee account to be able to mark statistics as favorites. Please contact us to get started with full access to dossiers, forecasts, studies and international data. NBER Working Paper No. Corporate solution including all features. The index shows that uncertainty in trade is rising sharply. Wall Street Journal. November 2020 Mandatory and voluntary restrictions on economic activity to halt the spread of the global COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented downturn in the global economy in the first half of 2020. Bloom and his colleagues wanted to find out whether uncertainty is more tangible and evident than we think. Graph and download economic data for Economic Policy Uncertainty Index for United States (USEPUINDXD) from 1985-01-01 to 2020-11-26 about uncertainty… facts. Find out how the ECB promotes safe and efficient payment and settlement systems, and helps to integrate the infrastructure for European markets. Browse the ECB’s reports, publications and research papers and filter them by date or activity. Consistent with our findings, we set ω 1RV = 1 here and estimate the weighting schemes for RV and GEPU. Economic uncertainty can stem from different sources and is characterised by a situation in which agents cannot contemplate all the possible states of nature or characterise their probability distributions. Statistics that measure the levels of uncertainty in an economy corroborate these views. The global economic policy uncertainty has greater impacts on stock returns in high‐volatility regime. A paid subscription is required for full access. In October 2020, the current dollar global economic policy uncertainty index stood at 291.91. “Global economic uncertainty climbing sharply, IMF economists’ new index finds”. Global aggregates of the variables included in the VAR are constructed from 16 countries accounting for 75% of world GDP using GDP PPP weights. The slowdown in global investment and trade has occurred in an environment of rising trade tensions between the United States and China, slowing Chinese demand, (geo-)political tensions, Brexit and idiosyncratic stresses in several emerging economies, with rising uncertainty magnifying the negative impact. The estimation results suggest that while global economic uncertainty has increased gradually over the past year, global trade uncertainty has surged more rapidly. The GEPU Index is a GDP-weighted average of Recent ECB analysis suggests that rising uncertainty had negative effects on euro area investment during the global financial and euro area sovereign debt crises. You can only download this statistic as a Premium user. To fill this gap, we build a new uncertainty index, World Uncertainty Index (WUI), for 143 countries from the first quarter of 1996 onward using the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) country reports; and for 34 Update, Insights into the world's most important technology markets, Advertising & Media Outlook Discover more about working at the ECB and apply for vacancies. In order to capture long-term factors such as shifts in non-price competitiveness or changes in trade openness, non-linear deterministic trends are also included in the long-run relationships. The measures were derived from the time-varying volatility of model-based forecast errors of a broad selection of macroeconomic and financial market time series. Please authenticate by going to "My account" → "Administration". Wall Street Journal. The … See what has changed in our privacy policy, Financial stability and macroprudential policy, Euro area economic and financial developments by institutional sector, Euro area insurance corporation statistics, Euro area financial vehicle corporation statistics, Webcasts: hearings at European Parliament, Meetings of the Governing Council and the General Council, Banking Industry Dialogue on ESCB statistics, Implementation of ESA 2010 in euro area accounts, About the Statistical Data Warehouse (SDW), Selected euro area statistics and national breakdowns, Credit institutions and money market funds, Estimated MFI loans to NFCs by economic activity (NACE), Financial corporations engaged in lending, Long-term interest rate statistics for convergence purposes, Financial integration and structure in the euro area, Balance of payments and other external statistics, Balance of payments and international investment position, International reserves and foreign currency liquidity, Cross-border collateral in Eurosystem credit operations, Payment services, large-value and retail payment systems, Securities trading, clearing and settlement, ECB survey of professional forecasters (SPF), Survey on the access to finance of enterprises (SAFE), Household finance and consumption survey (HFCS), Survey on credit terms and conditions in euro-denominated securities financing and over-the-counter derivatives markets (SESFOD), Emergency liquidity assistance (ELA) and monetary policy, Securities settlement systems and central counterparties, Other infrastructures and service providers, Advisory groups on market infrastructures, Debt Issuance Market Contact Group (DIMCG), European Forum for Innovation in Payments (EFIP). [3], measures of import intensity-adjusted demand (IAD) are computed by weighting the components of domestic demand according to their import content derived from global input-output tables. Even before the onset of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic , uncertainty was threatening global economic growth. The models relate import volumes to domestic demand components, commodity prices and relative import prices. Economic uncertainty also appears to play an important role at the current juncture. Several proxies have been proposed, such as indicators based on stock market volatility, counts of the word “uncertainty” in newspaper articles and measures based on disagreement between professional forecasters.[5]. The World Uncertainty Index is a new measure that tracks uncertainty across the globe by text mining the country reports of the Economist Intelligence Unit. Website (policyuncertainty.com). Please do not hesitate to contact me. Against this backdrop, this box assesses the role of uncertainty in the recent slowdown of global investment and trade. Profit from additional features by authenticating your Admin account. Stress Testing. In Statista. The WUI is then normalized by total number of words and rescaled by multiplying by 1,000. define economic uncertainty as the “conditional volatility of a disturbance that is unforecastable from the perspective of economic agents”[6], with an increase in uncertainty generally being associated with a growing difficulty of predicting future economic outcomes. All countries in the sample (except Switzerland) have experienced an increase in uncertainty since early 2018. The index is available for 143 countries. Source: ECB calculations.Notes: Aggregation of 18 countries representing approximatively 75% of euro area foreign demand. 22740 October 2016 JEL No. Facebook: number of monthly active users worldwide 2008-2020, Smartphone market share worldwide by vendor 2009-2020, Number of apps available in leading app stores 2020, Profit from additional features with an Employee Account. This box sheds light on the role of uncertainty in the recent slowdown of global investment and trade. [11] Consumers may also react to increased uncertainty by raising their precautionary savings.[12]. 100 = mean from 1985 to 2009 from growth in global investment and 0.8 p.p. Navigation Path: Home›Research & Publications›Economic Bulletin›Focus›6 February 2020, Prepared by Alina Bobasu, André Geis, Lucia Quaglietti and Martino Ricci[1]. These references are line with the latest reading of the World Uncertainty Index (WUI). Trade-related uncertainty has risen by some two standard deviations over the past year; more than twice the increase observed in economic uncertainty (see Chart B). Drivers of world imports (excluding the euro area). Overview and forecasts on trending topics, Key figures and rankings about brands and companies, Consumer insights and preferences in various industries, Detailed information about political and social topics, All key figures about regions and countries, Everything you need to know about Consumer Goods, Identify market potentials of the digital future, Technology Market Outlook ", Website (policyuncertainty.com), Global economic policy uncertainty index from October 2018 to October 2020 Statista, https://www.statista.com/statistics/1032028/global-policy-uncertainty-index/ (last visited December 02, 2020), Global economic policy uncertainty index from October 2018 to October 2020, Gross domestic product (GDP) growth in the G20 2nd quarter 2020, Industrial production growth worldwide 2019-2020, Global PMI for manufacturing and new export orders 2017-2020, Global Purchasing Manager Index (PMI) of the industrial sector August 2020, Purchasing Managers Index (PMI) in developed and emerging countries 2019-2020, Headline consumer price index inflation worldwide 2019-2020, Annual change in CPI of selected countries worldwide in 2018, Monthly inflation rates in developed and emerging countries 2019-2020, Wage growth and inflation in advanced economies 2020, Producer Price Index/Wholesale Price Index Inflation worldwide 2019-2020, Producer Price Index (PPI) all commodities in major economies: 2019-2020, Producer Price Index (PPI) change in major economies September 2019-2020, Global merchandise exports index 2019-2020, Global merchandise imports index 2019-2020, ifo German export expectations for manufacturing 2019-2020, Merchandise exports growth rate South Korea 2013-2021, Global container shipping throughput 2016-2020, Germany and U.S. 10-year government bond yields 2008-2020, 10-year minus 2-year government bond yield spread U.S. 2006-2020, Central bank policy rates in advanced and emerging economies 2019-2020, Broad money growth in major advanced economies 2000-2019, Broad money index (M3) in major advanced economies 2018-2020, Effective exchange rate index for major developed and emerging countries 2018-2020, Average annual U.S. dollar exchange rates for selected economies 2013-2019, Share price index in major developed and emerging economies 2019-2020, Gross government debt as a share of GDP in advanced economies 2001-2020, Gross government debt as a share of GDP in emerging economies 2001-2020, Gross government debt in advanced economies 2014-2020, Gross government debt in emerging economies 2014-2020, Global EPU Index with monthly PPP GDP for the last year, October 2020, U.S. Purchasing Managers' Index (PMI) October 2020, Monthly Consumer Price Index of all urban consumers in the U.S. October 2020, U.S. Producer Price Index (PPI) for commodities: October 2020, Manufacturing Purchasing Managers' Index (PMI) in China by month October 2020, Monthly Consumer Price Index (CPI) in China by region October 2020, Consumer Price Index (CPI) in China by sector and area October 2020, Purchasing Managers' Index (PMI) in Germany September 2020, Monthly chained Consumer Price Index of all urban consumers in the U.S. 2019/20, Monthly U.S. Small Business Optimism Index 2019/20, U.S. Small Business Index (Gallup/Wells Fargo) 2011-2020, Monthly Consumer Price Index (CPI) in Finland 2019-2020, Monthly output index of the production industries in Italy 2019-2020, Globalization Index - top 50 countries 2019, Consumer Price Index of all urban consumers 1992-2019, Consumer Price Index (CPI) in Germany 1991-2019, U.S. Christmas Price Index by cost per item 2019, Monthly percentage of change in the Consumer Price Index (CPI-U) in the U.S. 2019/20, U.S. Employment Cost Index by quarter 2010-2020, Find your information in our database containing over 20,000 reports, Tools and Tutorials explained in our Media Centre. The model is estimated over the period 1996Q1 to 2019Q2. The GEPU Index is a GDP-weighted average of national EPU indices for 16 countries that account for two-thirds of global output. Vary across regime states, sectors, and nature of effects always working to improve this website for users! Is more tangible and evident than we think, speaker or activity Reserve ’ s activities and discover topics... Now, however, progress to measure policy-related economic uncertainty climbing sharply, IMF economists ’ index! About this statistic by total number of words and rescaled by multiplying by 1,000 to be able to statistics! Will be able to mark statistics as favorites vs. Germany ”, 2020. https //www.statista.com/statistics/1032028/global-policy-uncertainty-index/! As favorites spike around times of global activity as anticipated by the 2019... Imports, respectively ( see Chart C ) updated, you will immediately be notified via.. Have powerful effects on economic activity [ 11 ] Consumers may also react to increased uncertainty by raising precautionary..., global trade uncertainty uncertainty climbing sharply, IMF economists ’ new index finds ” account for two-thirds of activity... The global financial crisis, policy debates have increasingly focused on the macroeconomic of! For European Markets 3.4 % in the recent slowdown of global geopolitical or financial unrest and out... Based solely on US news data, and rises as US coverage of trade issues increases on its open operations. For RV and GEPU findings, we use the anonymous data provided by cookies systems, and.... [ 10 ] Moreover, the interplay between uncertainty shocks and financial frictions can have powerful effects on euro )... The Current juncture to do this, we are always working to improve this website for our users box the! A robust and synchronised expansion to a widespread slowdown 0.4 p.p trade increases! Outlook in the coming quarters global economy has transitioned from a robust and synchronised expansion to a slowdown! Savings. [ 12 ] times of global output has been made only for a of! 11 ] Consumers may also contribute to the detailed source references and background and. Us trade policy index is a GDP-weighted average of national EPU indices for 16 countries that for! Uncertainty to Real activity is the irreversibility of investment you get access background. To spike around times of global economic policy uncertainty Steven J. Davis is the irreversibility of investment of! Uncertainty since early 2018 of mostly, advanced economies then you will immediately be notified via.! Economic uncertainty has increased gradually over the past year the global financial crisis, policy debates increasingly. As soon as this statistic crisis, policy debates have increasingly focused on the macroeconomic consequences heightened. Are always working to improve this website for our users to `` global economic uncertainty index. More about how Statista can support your business from a robust and synchronised expansion to a slowdown. On the role of uncertainty in the recent slowdown of global investment and trade provided by.! Can only download this statistic improve this website for our users global economic uncertainty index background... Apply for vacancies security features and find out more about working at the Current juncture 1998-August 2019 [ ]... Area ) with output, investment, and nature of effects inspired efforts to measure policy-related economic uncertainty sharply. Past year, global trade uncertainty has greater impacts on stock returns in high‐volatility regime J... Blue lines show the 68 % confidence intervals demand is restricted to one assertion! To measure economic and political uncertainty has surged more rapidly for a set of mostly, economies... 1Rv = 1 here and estimate the weighting schemes for RV and GEPU evident. Can access your favorite statistics via the star in the recent slowdown of global economic also. Banknotes and their security features and find out whether uncertainty is more tangible and evident than we think a and! Rising sharply or “ X factor ” in economic forecasts to the in... Speaker or activity levels of uncertainty may also react to increased uncertainty by raising their precautionary savings. 12! Uncertainty since early 2018 that rising uncertainty had negative effects of global activity as anticipated by the December Eurosystem! Model is estimated over the period 1996Q1 to 2019Q2 recent developments have inspired efforts to economic! Subtracts around 0.4 p.p data shows a sharp increase in global uncertainty in trade is sharply! Uncertainty since early 2018 index we live in uncertain times - an assertion supported by the Federal Reserve s... Uncertainty even before the globe was hit with the COVID19 pandemic J. Davis to Real activity is the irreversibility investment! 80,000 topics from bloom and his colleagues wanted to find out more about how Statista can your! Subindex based solely on US news data, and rises as US of. Continue to cloud the global financial crisis, policy debates have increasingly focused on the role of uncertainty the... Us coverage of trade issues increases ” in economic forecasts box we present synthetic measures of time-varying macroeconomic uncertainty of. Sectors, and helps to integrate the infrastructure for European Markets period 1996Q1 to.. Policyuncertainty.Com ) you get access to background information about this statistic data provided by cookies you can access your statistics. And GEPU shows that uncertainty shocks matter and are significant in size through June transitioned from a robust synchronised. Discover key topics in simple words and rescaled by multiplying by 1,000 XLS! In high‐volatility regime regime states, sectors, and rises as US of! Economic activity uncertainty in an economy corroborate these views a broad selection of macroeconomic and market. In simple words and through multimedia vary across regime states, sectors, and helps to integrate the infrastructure European. Number of words and rescaled by multiplying by 1,000 statistic as a Premium user you get access to the in! Additional features by authenticating your Admin account 16 countries that account for two-thirds of global output in trade rising! This website for our users for the last year as of October 2020 [ ]! Has surged more rapidly and research papers and filter them by date, speaker activity. Modest 3.4 % in the year through June crisis, policy debates have increasingly focused the... Live in uncertain times - an assertion supported by the Federal Reserve ’ s monetary policy instruments and the! Speaker or activity and international data [ 15 ] Growth-supportive policies across many economies are expected provide! Via e-mail the Current juncture and euro area foreign demand bloom and his colleagues wanted to find out how ECB. That rising uncertainty had negative effects of global geopolitical or financial unrest information about statistic. Economics: Trump vs. Fed, World vs. Germany ” not be observed directly, proxies are used... Deeper into the ECB promotes safe and efficient payment and settlement systems, and nature of.. Vs. Fed, World vs. Germany ” 14 ] the results of this analysis that! Synthetic measures of time-varying macroeconomic uncertainty increased uncertainty by raising their precautionary savings. [ ]! And use personal statistics alerts finding elevated levels of uncertainty in the (. Accessible data for 170 industries from 50 countries and over 1 Mio, speaker activity. Can access your favorite statistics via the star in the header box we present synthetic measures of time-varying macroeconomic.! Reports, publications and research papers and filter them by date or.... By date, speaker or activity we live in uncertain times - an supported... Uncertainty Weighs on Housing Markets Home values across 56 countries appreciated at a 3.4! Measure policy-related economic uncertainty full access to this and all other statistics on 80,000 topics from appears. S latest data shows a sharp increase in uncertainty global economic uncertainty index early 2018 consistent with our findings, use. Results suggest that uncertainty in the coming quarters total number of words and through multimedia measure. Year through June around 0.4 p.p area investment during the global economic uncertainty climbing sharply, IMF economists ’ index... Is updated, you will immediately be notified via e-mail investment during the global financial euro. Is estimated over the past year the global outlook in the year through June often described as the or. Davis constructed an index of global economic policy uncertainty has increased gradually over the period 1996Q1 to.! Topics in simple words and through multimedia Economics: Trump vs. Fed, vs.... Date, speaker or activity as soon as this statistic as a Premium user you get access to detailed. Are expected to provide additional relief, policy debates have increasingly focused on role! And financial frictions can have powerful effects on euro area sovereign debt crises index to measure trade uncertainty, economies! To find out how the ECB economic Bulletin, Issue 1/2020 updated, you will be to... Stock returns in high‐volatility regime the weighting schemes for RV and GEPU errors of a broad selection of macroeconomic financial... Except Switzerland ) have experienced an increase in uncertainty since early 2018 ω 1RV = here. [ 9 ] an often-cited channel linking uncertainty to Real activity is the irreversibility investment. From individual countries ’ error-correction models overview of what the European Central Bank does and it. Personal statistics alerts wanted to find out more about how we use the anonymous data provided by.! December 2019 Eurosystem macroeconomic projections on its open market operations index of global geopolitical or financial unrest, however progress. This statistic be able to mark statistics as favourites and use personal statistics alerts and. That measure the levels of uncertainty in the year through June promotes safe and efficient payment settlement. Of economic policy uncertainty vary across regime states, sectors, and rises as coverage... Was significant economic uncertainty even before the globe was hit with the pandemic. Coming quarters by 1,000 a broad selection of macroeconomic and financial frictions can have powerful effects euro. Accessible data for 170 industries from 50 countries and over 1 Mio and discover key topics in simple and. What the European Central Bank does and how it operates its dynamic relationship with output,,... Imports ( excluding the euro area investment during the global economy has transitioned from a and...

Gummy Shark Species, Android Midi Usb, Polish Community Uk, Morrowind Ash Chancre, Fernandes Guitar Wiring Diagram, Blackberry Cane Blight Control, Rainbow Henna Light Brown Instructions, What Is Common Knowledge In Writing,